The aims for doing this essay to explain theory’s Karl Marx and influence Marxism first we talked and explain live philosophy Karl Marx and After we discussed about him theory about definitions and some ideas of Karl Marx and I divided essay to some parts and linking them to each other and we talked about fundamentals Marxism and influence Marxism and we define social class theory Karl Marx and I talked about effects of the collapse of really existing socialism on Western Europe and why Marxism is rise again in world, and talked about why USSR was collapse when used Marxism theory ,but some topics not linking so I generally I talked about theory Karl Marx and influences on politics
Who is Karl Marx?
Karl Heinrich Marx was born in West German, the son of a prominent Jewish attorney, on 5 May 1818 in Trier. In Bonn and Berlin, Marx studied law, Yet Hegel and Feuerbach’s theories are adopted as well. He was awarded a PhD in Philosophy from the University of Jena in 1841. The year 1843, Marx and his wife Jenny moved to Paris, a hotbed for radical thought, after a short spell as editor of the liberal newspaper in Cologne. There he became a radical socialist and acquainted with Friedrich Engels, his long-term collaborator. Marx was expelled from France and spent two years in Brussels, where he intensified his partnership with Engels. Both co-authored the pamphlet ‘ The Communist Manifesto ‘ published in 1848, arguing that the whole of human history was based on class struggles, but that these eventually disappeared with the triumph of the proletariat. Marx moved to London in 1849, where he was going to spend the rest of his career. His family has lived in poverty for a number of years, but the wealthier Engels has been able to support them steadily. From his political and religious exile, Marx slowly emerged and created his most important work, ‘ Das Kapital. ‘ The first volume of this ‘ working class bible ‘ was written in his lifetime, while Engels revised the remaining volumes after the death of his friend. Karl Marx had been in intellectual and physical decline in his final years. He spent time in medical spas and was profoundly saddened by his wife’s death in 1881 and his daughter’s death. He passed away on 14 March 1883 and was buried in London’s Highgate Cemetery. (anone, 2014)
Karl Marx’s Theories: Class Differentiation and Revolution, Socialism &Capitalism
The theory of Karl Marx has had an everlasting effect on the field of sociology in that his theories opened the door to researching how one’s social class directly influences one’s life experiences and chances of survival. His dissertation has opened the door to many different perspectives on the issue of society’s rich and poor. Although Marx was able to meet other revolutionary thinkers and revolutionists in Paris from 1843 to 1845, Paris had become a center for all cultural, political and artistic issues. Marx was able to study economic ideas here in Germany that were not at his fingertips. At this time, Marx met with Friedrich Engels and became lifelong friends and became interested in the socialist world, reflecting on working class conditions. He wrote a lot of editorials about this and was expelled from his country once again – but this time from the French government. As a result of his radical (for the time) thinking, Marx would spend much of his life expelled from Germany and other countries. and about theory of social class (Johnson, 2018)
Karl Marx’s Social Theory of Class
Social class, also known as class, a group of people who have the same socioeconomic status within a community. The definition of class as a collection of individuals sharing similar economic circumstances has been widely used in censuses and social mobility studies, as well as being important in social theory. Only in the 19th century, as modern social sciences, especially sociology, developed, social class theories were fully elaborated. Political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke, Discussed the issues of social inequality and stratification and, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, French and English writers put forward the idea that non-political elements in society, such as the economic system and the family, largely determined the form of political life of society. The French social theorist Henri de Saint-Simon took this idea further, arguing that the form of government of a state corresponded to the character of the underlying economic production system. The successors of Saint-Simon introduced the theory of the proletariat or of the urban working class, As a major political force in modern society, it directly influences the development of Karl Marx’s class theory, which later dominated the discussion of the subject. For Marx, what distinguishes one type of society from another is its mode of production (i.e., the nature of its technology and the division of labor), and each mode of production creates a distinctive system of classes in which one class controls and directs the production process while another is a class. The direct producers and service providers of the dominant class or other classes. The relations between the classes are antagonistic because they are in conflict over the appropriation of what is produced, and in certain periods, when the mode of production itself is changing as a result of developments in technology, These tensions become serious in the use of labor, and a new class threatens the hegemony of the current rulers of society. According to Marx, the dominant class controls not only material production but also the production of ideas, thus establishing a specific cultural style and a dominant political doctrine and consolidating its control over society in The theory of class is at the center of Marx’s social theory (Britannica, 2013)
What is Marxism
Marxism is an economic and social system based on Karl Marx’s and Friedrich Engels ‘ political and economic theories. While it would take a great deal of time to explain the full implications and ramifications of the social and economic Marxist, In the Encarta Reference Library, ideology, Marxism is summed up as ‘a theory in which class struggle is central to the analysis of social change in Western societies.’ Marxism is the antithesis of capitalism that Encarta defines as an economic system, On the basis of private ownership of means of production and distribution of goods, characterized by a free competitive market and a desire for profit. Communism is a form of capitalism, the dominant characteristic of which is public ownership of means of production, distribution and trade. Within capitalism, the bourgeoisie, the working class or people, possess only their ability to work; they can only sell their own labor. In Marx’s view, a class is defined by its members ‘ relationship to the means of production. History has been proclaimed as the chronology of class struggles, wars and uprisings. Under capitalism, Marx continues, the workers are paid a bare minimum wage or wage to support their families, the worker is depressed because he has no power over his labor or material. The capitalists sell the labor-related products created by the workers at a proportional cost. The surplus value is the difference between what is paid to the employee and the cost of the item is sold. (Anon, 2002).
Fundamental of Marxism
Karl Marx explained that capitalism is a chaotic production system that is beyond humanity’s control. While it increased the capacity of human production higher than ever before, It is destined to plunge society into ever-increasing crises. Yet Marx also clarified that the new proletariat is formed by the system. This revolution would replace the capitalist class and, Creating a planned economy on the basis of modern production to maximize the wealth of society for the good of all. These are not obsolete concepts, but much more in line with the general processes of today’s world than most modern texts. As a direct continuation of the greatest thinkers in German philosophy, English political economy and French socialism, Marx developed his ideas. Most importantly, Marx developed a method, a detailed theory, and a purely material world outlook in which we live. Marxism is the science of nature and society’s underlying laws. Not only do we achieve the best understanding of society by studying these laws, but we also discover the role and tasks of revolutionaries. Marxism is the science of yeti that we are trying to change (Anon, marxsit, 2014)
Influence of Marxism
Marxism’s first impact in continental Europe was felt. By the late 19th century, it had permeated the European trade union movement through the influence of the Internationals. By theory, if not in action, the main socialist parties (see Socialist parties, in European history) are engaged in it. But there soon appeared a major divide between those socialists who claimed that a violent revolution was inevitable and those, especially Eduard Bernstein , who argued that socialism could be achieved by evolution; both groups could cite Marx as their authority because he was inconsistent in his writings on this question. The success of the revolutionary socialists (hereafter called communists) in the Russian Revolution and the establishment in Russia of an authoritarian communist state irrevocably divided the movement. Through breaking away from dictatorial Russian Communism Many of the bourgeois democratic parties were also slowly moving away from Marxist theory. Communists, on the other hand, regarded Marxism as their official ideology, and it was primarily under their auspices that it spread throughout the world, although its ideas of class struggle and inequality have helped to decide alternative social and growth policies in many countries, apart from those that adhere to it. At most, the Soviet, Chinese, and other Communist states were only partly organized along Marxist classless lines, although Communist leaders such as Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Mao Zedong staunchly asserted Marxist orthodoxy for their statements. In addition, in seeking to adapt it to their own needs, they generalized the doctrine to a great extent. The emergence of diverse models of welfare capitalism, strengthened workers ‘ situation in industrial societies, and the recent collapse of the Communist bloc in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have tended to refute the bleak and deterministic economic predictions of Marx. The Communist regime of the Soviet and Chinese The outcome was not the end of the government, but the creation of massive, monolithic and increasingly inefficient state systems. In the Third World, popular support has been provided by a legacy of colonialism and anti-imperialist resistance. In Africa, throughout nations like Ethiopia, Benin, Angola, Kenya, and Senegal, Marxism has had a notable impact. The synthesis of Communism in less stable societies, A powerful attraction remains materialist analysis with a militant sense of justice. Nevertheless, its influence has significantly weakened and seems to have declined even more since the Communist bloc’s collapse in Eastern Europe. Nonetheless, communism’s collapse has led many to expect Marxism’s similar fate. Much of Marxism has already existed because of its close association with Communism (anone, infoplaes, 2017)
Marxism as a mass ideology; the effect of the collapse of really existing socialism on western Europe
The collapse of existing socialism in Western Europe and in the former USSR include with a general retreat of Marxism theory in Western Europe .Marxism which was virtually a fashion in the western countries during the decade of the 1970 retreated from nearly all of its strong holes (element of the intelligent and scion test and in the pages of serious, press) to the benefit of other theoretical trends opposing to Marxism , the social sciences become ‘demarxistizaid’ within these circumstances many anti Marxism intelligence and journalist fore saw . Once again , the approaching final , death Marxism , in order to substitute are there argument , a primitive empirical is usually mobilized , Marxism becomes actualizing : in this country of existing socialism the collapse of those regimes proves that Marxism failed ,thus Marxism was a mistake and therefore it’s and has come if things were so simple and if social evolution originated not in the dynamic of social antagonism ,from the class struggles ,but from the implementation in real it’s, of theoretical systems of thought , from which indeed what is correct, (finish dominant) then we should have been released from any number of controversial and absurd beliefs such as for example , Christian faiths , whose failures in the actuality of the hole , inquisition is more than apparent today In west (nelslin, 2009)
Why Marxism is on the rise again
The reality is almost the exact opposite, 164 years after Marx and Engels wrote about the grave diggers. Far from destroying capitalism, the bourgeoisie keeps it on the side of life. Overworked, underpaid workers supposedly freed by the greatest socialist revolution in history (China) are being pushed to the brink of suicide to keep those in the West enjoying their iPads. China’s cash is bankrolling the irony of leading Marxist thinkers is scarcely wasted. ‘The dominance of capitalism worldwide today depends on the existence of a Chinese Communist Party which provides de-localized capitalist enterprises, Cheap labor to lower prices and deprive workers of self-organizing rights, ‘says Jacques Rancièrian, French Marxist philosopher and professor of philosophy at Paris VIII University. ‘Happily, we should hope for a future less ridiculous and more just than today.’ Maybe this dream explains another surprising reality of our economically unstable times – the resurgence of interest in Marx and Engels. Thought about it. Since 2008, sales of Das Kapital, Marx’s political economy masterpiece, have exploded, as have those of The Communist Manifesto and the Grundrisse (or, to give it its English title, Outlines of Political Economy Critique). Its sales increased as British workers saved the banks to keep the failing system going and the rich’s snouts firmly in its troughs. While the rest of us are dealing with debt, poverty at work or worse. There is even a director of Chinese theater named He Nian who capitalized on the revival of Das Kapital to create a musical all-singing, all-dancing. And in perhaps the most exquisite reversal of the luxuriantly bearded fortunes of the radical leader, Karl Marx was recently picked from a list of 10 applicants to appear on a new MasterCard question by customers of the Chemnitz-based German bank Sparkasse. From 1953 in Communist East Germany, Nietzsche had been known as Karl Marx Stadt until 1990. Obviously, the former East Germany hasn’t airbrushed its Communist legacy more than two decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall. In 2008, Reuters reports, a survey of east Germans found 52% believed the free-market economy was ‘unsuitable’ and 43% said they wanted socialism back. Karl Marx may be dead and buried in the graveyard of Highgate, but among credit-hungry Germans he is alive and well. Will Marx appreciate the irony of putting his picture on a card to deepen the debt of Germans? You’d think about it. Marxism 2012, a five-day festival sponsored by the Socialist Workers ‘ Party, will be attended by several thousand people in London later this week. It’s an annual event, but what surprises organizer Joseph Coomera is how many more of his participants were young in recent years. ‘The revival of interest in Marxism comes because it provides tools to analyze capitalism, and especially capitalist crises like the one we’re in now,’ Choonara says. There was a glut of books trumpeting the relevance of Marxism. Last year, a book called Why Marx Was Wrong was written by English literature professor Terry Eagleton. French Maoist philosopher Alain Badious published a little red book called The Communist Hypothesis with a red star on the cover , in which he rallied the faithful to usher in the third era of the communist idea (the previous two having gone from the establishment of the French Republic in 1792 to the massacre of the Paris communards in 1871, and from 1917 to the collapse of Mao’s Cultural Revolution in 1976). Isn’t this all a delusion?
In finally this essay after hard work I finished this essay we knew Karl Marx live when he born and when he died and we knew about him theory and social of class and defense some theories when knew how theoretical can be effective on system politics and explained influences Marxism on society and people and spoke about rising up maxim in world special on Western Europe and some important fundamental and explain those countries using Marxism theory still now and which countries used and collapse by this theory.